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Quellen zur Geschichte (China) / Historical Sources
Library-History: The Destruction of Chinese Books
in The Peking Siege of 1900 - German Sources
(Übersetzt von / Translated by Elisabeth Bluhme)
Following the paper by Mr. Davis on the IFLA meeting 1996 concerning the
fire at the library of the Hanlin Academy. You may find this article
under IFLA Journal vol. 23, No.2, 1997.
I have looked for German
sources on this event.
What was the matter? This is a short summary:
At the end of the last century the Chinese empire was in a state of
disarray: In two opium wars the Europeans and the Americans had forced
the Chinese to open their ports to foreign trade and to concede huge
advantages to the Europeans. The Christian missions enjoyed considerable
privileges so that many Chinese converted, rather by legal and similar
reasons than by inner conviction. This fact and also feelings of hatred
against foreigners led to a resurge of popular movements, of which one,
called «the boxers for law and unity», became better known.
From June to August 1900 the embassy quarter was beleagered by
Chinese troups. A partial cause may have been the behaviour of the
German ambassador von Kettler against a presumed boxer, an action which
resulted in the death of the boxer. - On 18 June von Kettler was
murdered (see note 1). Until 14 August, the day when European troops
marched into Peking, the embassy quarter had been largely cut off from
the outside world. In the north were the English and the Austrian
embassies, on the middle of the embassy lane lay the Russian, the
Japanese and the French embassies and in the south near the city walls
were the American and the German legations.
At the beginning of the siege a housing block in front of the
compound had been burned down by the Chinese. When on 23 June the Hanlin
Academy with its valuable library, close to the British legation, went
up in flames, the English accused the boxers to have caused the fire.
However, there is considerable doubt about it. Mr. Davis and Mr. Cheng
have begun to shed some light on this matter. They evaluated English,
American and Chinese sources and presented the results at the IFLA
meeting in Beijing. In this follow-up I would like to display the texts
which I have found in the German sources on the fire of the Hanlin
Academy. I may anticipate that the result is meagre (a possible reason
see at the end of this article).
Here now follow my own findings in the German language
I had known that the German language newspaper «Ostasiatischer
Lloyd/Shanghai» has reported extensively on the boxer uprising. In
this newspaper excerpts from the diary of customs inspector Mr. Bismarck
were printed, starting from 14 August. Herein the fire has only been
mentioned in passing ( see note 1).
The perusal of several dailies (Vossische, Berliner
Börsen-Courier, Norddeutsche Zeitung, Hamburger Fremdenblatt,
Kölnische Zeitung, Münchner Neueste Nachrichten), brought many
reports about the situation in China to light which had mainly used
English sources, but only in the Hamburger Fremdenblatt (Tagebuch) and
the Kölnische Zeitung (report by Morrison, 15 October 1900 ff.,
here: 17 October 1900) mention the fire at the Hanlin Academy (see note
According to this report, not so much the library had been burnt
down but the other buildings of the Hanlin Academy. The report also
supports the view that the library had suffered more damage through
pilfering than by fire.
A Berlin journalist pointed out that the English reports had
certainly been biased as the English had important interests in China,
and that Russian sources would be more reliable. I have not found such
reports. However, as the Germans did not have telegraph lines of their
own, original reports could hardly be transmitted. Only after the
lifting of the siege such reports became available. As such we have the
diary mentioned above.
Some newspapers contained articles on the siege of the legations in
Beijing (not all have been viewed as yet!) (see note 3). However, here,
too, the fire at the Hanlin Library has only rarely been mentioned, as
e.g. in the paper «Vom Fels zum Meer» the author (the author
and the photographer of the pictures have unfortunately not been named)
(see note 3, no. 11).
This article also contains pictures with the following
- Italian cannoneer on the fortification in the Hanlin Academy.
- Fifteen feet high barricade in the Hanlin Academy.
- The ruins of the Hanlin Academy next to the gunned down
- A mine dug in the Hanlin Academy.
The «Zeit» only mentiones that much looting took place and
that the treasures from the confiscated boxes had been sold on the free
market in Marseille and Toulon in July (see Asiaticus: note 4, no. 1).
Furthermore an announcement from Berlin has been quoted in which art
treasures from China have been offered. Books have not been mentioned in
Next I investigated the archives.
The German Foreign Office in Bonn possesses a part of the files in
question, the Hauptstaatsarchive at Berlin, Finckensteinallee another
part. These are reports from the diplomatic corps, but above all from
the troops which took part. Besides a copy of the diary of Mr. Bismarck
only the following note was found:
The buildings situated close to the legation have been burnt by the
boxers and have then been destroyed by the foreign troops.
This note stems from Mr. Zimmermann, an employee of the embassy, who
could leave Beijing on 25 June (Political Archives of the Foreign
Office, Bonn. 183, doc.no. 11173). Who, however, were these foreign
troops? Probably it is a camouflaged term for the Europeans, as he did
not want to contradict the official version of the events.
Then I returned to my own domain, to literature: The search
delivered a surprisngly large number of German books on the boxer
uprising. The encyclopedias (Meyer, Brockhaus) quote some of them, the
others were found in bibliographies and as quotations in the books. Some
of the authors confirm the judgement that has been pronounced by
Seagrave in his book «Dragon Lady - The Life and Legend of the Last
Empress of China» (New York: Knopf 1992) on Morrison, the English
trade correspondent of the Times, namely that his memories «as a
total cannot be regarded as conforming to the truth» (Heinze, p.
21). (see - note 4, no. 6)
I could not find a number of works. (note 5)
As interesting the books may be for the sequence of military actions
in the summer of 1900 and the subsequent times (this is not the topic of
this paper), they bring little for the fire at the library. The reviews
of these books never mention a hint at the fire.
Besides these titles there are many more which, however, only deal
with the expeditionary force or the later times.
The question can now be asked why the members of the «civilized
nation» of Germany cared so little about the loss of such an
important cultural monument. If you look at the plan of the embassy
quarter, you will notice that the German embassy was situated at the
opposite end, as compared to the British legation. The Germans may have
had other worries concerning defence than to worry intensively about the
events close to the British embassy, and they had to rely on the
description of the English.
An evaluation of the texts clearly shows that the fire has damaged
the library but has certainly not destroyed it. Particularly from the
contribution no. 4 it becomes evident that the Hanlin Academy did not
burn down completely. If the authors report that parts have been saved,
they still do not mention what happened later with the remaining books.
They did not remain in China, but became the booty of the Europeans and
Americans. In 1914 e.g. a volume of the encyclopedia was auctioned off
in London (Hamburger Fremdenblatt no. 117, 31/07/1914). During this
century some volumes have been found in different countries, and some of
them were returned to China.
Addendum 1: Although the German ambassador von Kettler was
murdered only on 18 June, a news-agency from Tientsin/Hongkong reported
his death on 14 June. Possibly this was a confusion with the chancelor
of the Japanese embassy. It is also possible that the
Emperor-Wilhelm-like behaviour of the embassador led to the plan to
murder him (see e.g. Ostasiatischer Lloyd of 15 June, p. 433;
Vossische No. 278 of 17 June and No. 279 of 18 June; Times of 18 June;
Reichsanzeiger of 18 June).
Addendum 2: In «Dragon Lady - ...» Seagrave deals
with the reporting on the boxer uprising. He demonstrates the reports as
a bunch of lies. The book also contains some valuable remarks on the
fire in the library (p. 509 - 517) - but these are not German sources.
Addendum 3: I should like to mention some film titles which
deal with the period of the boxer uprising
- Notes: 1. Customs inspector Bismarck's diary, here
according to the handwritten copy of the diary in the Political Archive
of the Foreign Office, Bonn, p. 46-47. The text in the
Ostasiatischer Lloyd of September 14 is very similar.
June 23. (...) Very strong wind which would spread a fire
tremendously. We have got used to the firing so that a break becomes
noticeable. The Hanlin Yuan, the oldest and most valuable library of
China, in which examinations take place, provides good accommodation
for the troops of the boxers.
However it is assumed that if we set fire to it or would do other
damage to the building, we should incur the hatred of the educated.
June 24. Last night fire has been set to the Hanlin Yuan by the
Boxers themselves with the intention of dislodging us by the fire.
We broke a hole through the wall and succeeded in keeping the fire
away from the embassy. It was quite a job. A part of the magnificent
wooden plates and manuscripts were rescued, but the major part of
centuries of industry has been burnt to ashes.
- Note 2: Report by Morrison, Kölnische Zeitung 17.10.1900:
A strong wind blew from the Hanlin Academy over to the legation;
the next buildings were only a few feet away from the house of the
ambassador. If one of them caught fire, the house of the ambassador
would also be in danger. Suddenly a fire alarm was rung. Smoke rose
from the Hanlin Academy; the most venerable building in Beijing, the
great imperial academy, the centre of all Chinese erudition with its
valuable libraries and collections of manuscripts stood in flames.
Whoever was off duty hastened to the rear of the embassy. During the
night imperial soldiers had camped in the Hanlin and in their desire
to exterminate the foreigners they had not deterred from setting
fire to the building. First the temple had to be cleared. A hole was
broken into the wall, and Captain Pool jumped through it, followed
by number of sailors and volonteers. They searched the courtyards
and returned to the main building with its sumptuous pillars and
genealogical trees. Some Chinese rushed from the other burning
edifices to the main entry; they were surprised and many were
killed; they received their due reward for their mischief. In other
places large libraries have been destroyed by the victors who
entered the enemy territory, but what will you think of a nation
that burns down even their most sacred edifice, for centuries the
pride of their scholars, and all that just to take revenge on a few
foreigners? In order to save the embassy it was necessary to
continue the work of destruction and to pull down the library
building. This was done under great difficulties and with
insufficient tools; trees which endangered our position, were
felled. An attempt was made to save some of the most valuable
manuscripts, but in view of the imminent danger, only a few could be
- Note 3: Newspaper article on the siege of the embassies.
- Descriptions from the Bavarian War and Army History. 1902, No. 11:
Leisner: From the Diary of a China Veteran
No mention of the
- Evangelisches Missionsmagazin. Basel: Missionsverlag 1900, p. 479;
518: The siege of Beijing
No mention of the fire
- Illustrirte Zeitung. Leipzig: Verlag III. Zeitung 1900, volume 115,
No. 2984 of 6 September: The siege of the embassies at Beijing
No mention of the fire. This number and 2978 of 28 July contain
pictures of the most important persons, No. 2984 also has pictures
- Koloniale Zeitschrift. Leipzig: Bibl. Institute 1900, p. 186-189:
W. Grube: Beijing and the Street of the Embassies
No mention of
- Mitteilungen aus dem Gebiet des Seewesens (=> Maritime
Journal). Vienna: Gerold 1900, p. 438-444: Report of the French
ambassador Mr. Pichon in Beijing on the siege of the foreign
embassies from 20 June to 14 August 1900
No mention of the
- Ostasien. Berlin: Calvary 1900, p. 353-362: Tamai: Murai's Diary on
the Siege of Beijing
June 22: ... The English legacy was
troubled by a conflagration, which burnt a building ..
... During the night a depot nearby our legacy was burnt, by what it
was in great danger ...
- Ostasien. Berlin: Calvary 1900, p. 363: Report on the Days of
Horror at Beijing
(Text similar to note 4, no.12)
- Reichsanzeiger. Berlin 1900, 14 November, Special Supplement:
Reports of the Imperial Embassy at Beijing from 31 May to 29 August
No mention of the fire
- Vom Fels zum Meer (=> From the Rock to the Sea). Stuttgart:
DVA 1900, p. 429-440: The Barricades of Beijing
(p. 434:) Two
Americans ... (who) had formerly shot pictures in the destroyed
corridors of the Hanlin Academy
(p. 435:) However, you will no longer be surprised about this
destruction, if you have seen what has become of the famous Hanlin
Academy. This edifice most venerated by all Chinese and all its
irreplaceable collections of books has been sacrificed by the
imperial troops in the first days of the siege; and that only
because it adjoined the British Embassy and they had hoped to get to
the detested foreigners by this way.
- Zeit. Wien: Zeit 27 July 1901, No. 356: Neuffen: War-Booty and
European International Law
No mention of the fire. As to the
looting see also Asiaticus in note 4, No. 1
- Note 4: Books:
- Asiaticus: The battles in China. Berlin:
Schröder 1901, fasc. 3 (reviewed in the Militär-Zeitung
1901, column 1360 - 1361; Jahrbücher für die deutsche
Armee und Marine (=> Yearbooks for the German Army and Navy)
1902, vol. 122, pp. 285-286
(p. 31) In such a way the Chinese arson had burnt down whole
street blocks; among them the Hanlin Academy, which adjoined the
British Embassy, went up in flames together with all their
magnificent and irreplaceable literary treasures of old Chinese
manuscripts set on fire by the Chinese themselves. (Asiaticus
heavily relies on Morrison).
(p. 64) The French Government saw itself obliged to confiscate
nine big boxes containing works of art, which had been landed at
Marseille, for later restitution to China (see Zeit: note 3, No.12);
«further such boxes addressed to high-ranking officers are
expected to arrive «by the next steamers», as reports the
SiŠcle of 23 December. «According to the estimate of returning
soldiers the total value of the war-booty amounts to over 70 million
francs.» English newspapers, in particular the Westminster
Gazette, accused not only the troops but also nonmilitary personnel
at Beijing of an «inclination to violent acquisition»,
however they stress that the Germans in their suburbthreatened
looting with a death sentence (pursuant to the German martial
- Conrady, A.: 8 Monate in Peking (=> Eight Months in
Beijing). Halle: Gebauer 1905 (Orient. I)
No mention of the
- Deutschland in China 1900-1901 (=> Germany in China
1900-1901). Düsseldorf 1902 (Reviewed in
Militärwochenblatt 1901, No. 99)
The author gets to Beijing only after its occupation. He describes
- the consequences and the behaviour of the occupiers. The Hanlin
Academy is not mentioned.
- Fleming, Peter: Die Belagerung zu Peking (=> The Siege of
Beijing). Stuttgart, Koehler, 1961
(pp. 118-120) On this day,
the 23rd of June, the besieged were in great danger. The previous
evening the Chinese had set fire to several houses of the natives
which stood at the south east corner of the territory of the British
Embassy. An indescribable confusion ensued ... Hanlin Yuan with its
big halls and courtyards, for centuries the paragon of Chinese
erudition, adjoined the northern part of the British Embassy. ...
The Chinese systematically set fire to the Hanlin one courtyard
after the other. The old buildings burnt like tinder; The noise
drowned out the constant firing of the guns. ...
The fire brigade had already pulled down the buildings standing
closest to the Hanlin. Near it was the library. There is no complete
catalogue of its irreplaceable contents; among others it contained
the Yung Le Ta Tien, an encyclopedia which had been ordered by the
second Ming emperor. It had been completed in 1407, after about 2000
scholars had worked on it. This remarkable work embodied «the
substance of all classical, historical, philosophical and literary
works which had been written to that day, including astronomy,
geography, the occult sciences, medicine, buddhism, taoism and the
arts». It consisted of more than 23000 volumes. The Yung Le Ta
Tien had never been printed, the only copy had been destroyed in a
fire in the 16th century.
A few undestroyed books and manuscripts had been saved by
sinologists. Some of the hand-cut wooden blocks which contain very
rare works somehow got into the British Embassy; they were used by
the marines in order to fill up holes and by the children in order
to erect minibarricades for their «boxer game», the only
suitable game at the time.
For the rest, the Hanlin perished with its treasures which had been
collected over centuries, within a few hours. Such a wilful and
decisive act of demolition would be difficult to pardon, even if it
had been committed in a conquered city as an act of retribution.
History does not know of another comparable example of a cultural
- Hugo Guenther: Die Schreckenstage von Peking (=> The Days
of Horror at Beijing). Hamm 1902 (Reviewed in the
Militär-Literatur-Zeitung 1902, col. 133-134, Brandes)
(p. 29) In the northwestern sector, i.e. closest to the Imperial
City, was the British embassy, close to the canal, separated from
the wall of the Imperial City only by a square and a building, in
which the famous Hanlin Library was kept, a collection of the most
valuable and rare works of Chinese literature.
(p. 38) In the night a big fire lit up in the British embassy. The
English had spared the Hanlin Library, although it was so
threateningly close to them. All advice to burn it down had been
decisively vetoed by the British minister Sir Claude Macdonald.
Partly he had been moved by the wish of an educated European to
preserve the irreplaceable collection of books, and partly, and
probably more so by his fear of arousing the utmost hatred of the
educated and learned Chinese by such a deed. But the boxers, who had
nestled in the library, did not know of such considerations. Perhaps
they could smoke out the foreign devils. The wind blew from north to
the embassy, hence the opportunity was favourable, and the firebrand
flew into the masses of books. But pulling down a wall the English
succeeded in keeping the fire from the embassy, and the hard-pressed
European «barbarians» even kept the time and leisure to
save a part of the unique manuscripts, though a sad remainder of the
great treasure which had been collected for centuries.
- Wolfgang Heinze: Die Belagerung der Pekinger Botschaften.
Eine völkerrechtliche Studie. (=> The Siege of the
Beijing Embassies. A Study in International Law.) Heidelberg 1901.
(Reviewed in Deutsche Literatur-Zeitung 1901, col. 2798-2799;
Hochschulnachrichten, München 1901, No. 133; Literarisches
Centralblatt für Deutschland 1901, col. 1798)
(p. 54) Also the famous library building Han-Lin-Yuan (note:
Han-Lin-Yuan means Academy of Beijing, which had to look after the
preservation of the classical language and literature), which the
besieged had wanted to spare for fear of the sensibilities of the
Chinese, although its proximity could have been disastrous for them,
had been set ablaze by the attackers. Only two of the 25 library
halls had been saved. Chinese works of an inestimable value were
used in order to close holes in the barricades. The unique
encyclopedia of Yung-Li, a lexicographical work of more than 1000
volumes, was lost. The hatred against the foreigners had obviously
repressed any better feelings.
- Loebell, W. von: Jahresberichte. (=> Annual Reports)
No mention of the fire.
- Löffler, O.: Die China-Expedition 1900-1901. (=>
The China Expedition 1900-1901). Berlin: Mittler 1902 (Beihefte zum
Militärischen Wochenblatt) (Reviewed in Jahrbücher für
die deutsche Armee und Marine 1902, vol. 122, p. 530 - 531)
mention of the fire
- Loti, Pierre: Die Schreckenstage von Peking. (=> The
Days of Horror at Beijing). Dresden, Leipzig 1903
See note 3
- Müller, Alfred: Die Wirren in China. (=> The
Turmoils in China). Volume 2. Berlin: Liebel 1901 (Reviewed in the
Militär-Literatur-Zeitung 1900, p. 374-375; 1901, p. 150-151;
Nord und Süd 1901, p. 423)
No mention of the fire in the
chronicles for the corresponding days.
- Rogge, Christian: Deutsche Seesoldaten bei der Belagerung der
Gesandtschaften in Peking im Sommer 1900 (=> German Marines
at the Siege of the Embassies at Beijing in the Summer of 1900.
(Reviewed in the Militär-Literatur-Zeitung 1902, col. 133-134)
[In his preface the author mentions handwritten diaries of the
soldiers Edzards, Seiffert and Koch, as well as those of the Count
of Soden. I have not been able to find these, but it is questionable
whether they contribute to our formulation of the problem. The diary
of the soldier Günther is considered in no. 5.]
(p.173-174) The Chinese cleverly used the prevailing wind direction
to bring the fire to the embassies by setting fire to external
houses; during strong winds they set fire to the Hanlin library
which was north of the English embassy on the 23rd of June and put
the residence of the English ambassador in great danger. The
Europeans had not destroyed the collection of books that contained
valuable works of which only few copies existed, for scientific
reasons and not to provoke the Chinese literates; now they had to
realise to their detriment, that such considerations are not
appropriate in war, especially not in China.
They could save only little of the treasure. After this fire
part of the library premises was incorporated into the English
- Scheibert, J.: Der Krieg in China (=> The War in
China). I.II. Berlin: Schroeder 1900, 1901
[The fire of the
Hanlin accademy is not mentioned, but a previous fire where books
were destroyed. Therefore I quote it nevertheless.]
(p.187-188) On the evening of the 16th of June a fire broke out
again. It was laid by the boxers in order to destroy a foreign goods
shop in the city. The fire spread and left a whole suburb in ashes
and destroyed millions. First - it leaped to the street where
bookshops were situated and destroyed this most interesting street
of Peking with its invaluable scrolls, manuscripts and printed
- Wilhelm Schlatter: Die chinesische Fremden- und
Christenverfolgung vom Sommer 1900 (=> The Chinese Pogroms
Against Foreigners and Christians. Basel 1901
(p.47-48 after Arthur Smith) North of the British embassy the
famous Hanlin-buildings rose before their fall. Their walls
contained the most valuable treasures of Chinese literature of all
times, the centre of erudition of the empire, but endangered what
was entrusted to their protection. However the proposition to
demolish one of the houses was strongly critisised on the grounds
that such blasphemy of the «holiest building in China»
would hurt the feelings of the government. What the strangers failed
to do in over tender sentiments was carried out by the hand of the
locals: the Hanlin was set on fire by the emperor's soldiers right
at the beginning of the siege in the hope that it would spread to
the embassy. Other great libraries have been destroyed by victorious
conquerors. But what should we think of a nation that destroys her
own greatest shrine, the pride and glory of her scholars over
centuries, only to take revenge on the foreigner?
The besieged succeeded in mastering the fire through superhuman
effort, but the ruins of 20 halls -- only two remained standing --
meant the end of the doctrine of Confucius. The wooden stereotype
plates of the most valuable works were used for building barricades,
the treasures of literature were dipped in marshes, used for
extinguishing the fire and buried when they rotted; Boxes of campher
wood which contained the unique encyclopedia Yung-Lu were filled
with earth and used fore defence purposes. The wind carried Hanlin
essays about; literary curiosities were used by soldiers and in
kitchens as fuel, coolies used them as a support on their shoulders
when they carried coal; they lay in heaps in the streets and were
ground to shreds under wheels when the traffic resumed.
«Amongst the diverse appearances of Nemesis that - was the
result of the uprising against the foreigners in China, the fate of
the famous Hanlin-Yuan takes the first place. It is impossible not
to notice that the ideas that this university represented have
experienced a contradiction that has to convince even the most
stubborn confucianist that the previous - era is over for
- Gustav Velde: Rueckblick auf die Ereignisse in Peking im
Sommer 1900 (=> Retrospective of the Events in Peking in the
Summer of 1900). Berlin 19-06, p.62-63
No mention of the fire.
- Wang: In und um Peking waehrend der Kriegswirren 1900-1901
(=> In and around Peking during the Turmoils 1900-1901.
Berlin 1902 (Reviewed in Jahrbücher für die deutsche Armee
und Marine 1901, volume 120, p.374-375, volume 121, p.119-120)
This volume consists entirely of photographs of China and its
surroundings. None depicts the Hanlin library but there is one of
the imperial library which was burnt down likewise.
- Theodor von Winterhalder: Kaempfe in China (=>
Battles in China). Wien, Budapest 1902
(p.201, note) On June 16
a fire broke out in the street where books, fans and lanterns were
sold; it was carried by a south wind and also seized the outer
Tian-men regarded as sacred. It caused the Chinese damages worth
1.5-2 million dollars. In this way they paid for their superstition
and their fear of the boxers. (This is only one occurrence of the
word «book» but possibly books were burnt there too.)
(p.241) In addition the Chinese fired again and our soldiers which
were posted on elevated positions and behind the barricades were
severly hindered by the biting smoke and raining pellets and were
harldly able to reply; the west group fared similarly, where the
Chinese set fire to the Hanlin in the afternoon. This old Chinese
accademy contained extremely valuable historic documents, the oldest
printed matter and matching plates in its extensive rooms; for this
reason there had been hope that the Chinese whose respect for all
written matter was well known, (see note) would refrain from
touching it. Vain hope, this time even this sacrifice was not too
great to cause damage - to the foreigners. Luckily the English
succeeded in stopping the flames from spreading over the separating
wall, and they now installed a guard in the Hanlin that later had a
great advantage in the hitherto neutral complex.
Note: Nothing written or printed may be lost as garbage;
individual companies collect rests of writings and books on the
street and then burn them. In Beijing there are several such
«crematoria for literature».
(p.297, 12th July) Nearly at the same time at the Hanlin one
American and several Englishmen had also captured a Chinese
artillery banner that had been planted close to the wall on a
(p.312, 14th July) After the experiences in the French embassy and
after Mr. Wintour had made disturbing observations in this respect,
the general fear of bombs was only too justified and he ordered a
mine . . . to be planted against a mine dug from the imperial coach
- Note 5: Works not found:
- Das Blutbad von Peking. (=> The blood bath of Peking
(novel). Neusalza 1901
- Chinabriefe (=> Letters from China (by John Chinaman)
Leipzig: Uhlig 1903
- Conrady, A.: Chinas Kultur und Literatur (China's culture and
literature.) Leipzig: Seele 1903 (Hochschulvorträge für
- Henry Dose: Erlebnisse eines China-Kaempfers (=>
Adventures of a China Fighter). Hamburg 1901
- Der gelbe Krieg (=> The yellow war). Leipzig: Minde
- Genähr, J.: Die Wirren in China in neuer Beleuchtung
(=> The turmoils in China under a new light). Guetersloh:
- Hummel, G.: Oftmals im Tode! Erlebnisse aus dem
Boxer-Aufstand in China (=> Frequently close to death!
Episodes from the uprising of the boxers in China). Barmen:
- Oeser, Hermann: Das Blutbad von Peking (=> In Germany
forbidden by office Osnabrück 1901). Neusalza: Oeser
- Peking und Tientsin (=> Peking and Tianjin). Leipzig:
Schmidt u. Guenther 1900
- Politische Correspondenz (=> Political
Correspondence), Vienna 1900, ca. 16.10.ff: Rosthorn: Bericht an den
(österreichischen) Aussenminister Goluchowski (=>
Report to the Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs Goluchowski)
- Reiche, Hermann: Kämpfe in China. Oder: Die "Sekte vom
grossen Messer" (=> In Germany forbidden by office Stettin 1901).
Reiche, Hermann, Schwiebus
- Schmidt, P.von: Der Krieg in China und unsere Ost-Asiaten
(=> The war in China and our East Asians). Berlin:
Schriftenvertrieb 1901 (Neue Volksbuecher 68) (+ reviewed in
Militaer-Literatur-Zeitschrift 1901, col. 331)
- Steiner, P.: Tage der Drangsal in China (=> Days of
affliction in China). Basel: Missionsverlag 1903
- C.J. Voskamp: Aus der verbotenen Stadt (=> From the
Forbidden City). Berlin 1901
- Note 6: Film titles.
I do not know whether the fire is
mentioned in one of the films as most of them probably do not exist
anymore. (FID gives the number from «Filmangebot in
Deutschland 1895 - 1911» Munich 1991)
- FID 39414, 1900: Abfahrt der Schiffe (des China-Expeditionscorps in
Wilhelmshaven) (=> Departure of the ships of the China
expedition corps in Wilhelmshaven). Messter, Berlin
- FID 39425, 1900: Abreise des Grafen Waldersee nach China
(=> Departure of the Count Waldersee to China). Deutsche
Mutoskop und Biograph, Berlin
- FID 526, 1900: Ankunft des Generals Waldersee in Tientsin,
Parade der alliierten Truppen. (=> Arrival of General
Waldersee at Tiantsin, parade of the allied troops). Soc. Generale
des Cinemas et Films, Paris
- FID 1015, 1900: Ausfahrt der Chinakrieger von Bremerhaven mit
der Strassburg am 31.7.1900 (=> Departure of the China
warriors with the Strassburg from B.on 31 July 1900)
- FID 1537, 1900: Beschiessung und Erstuermung des chinesischen
Festungshafens Taku. (=> Shelling and Assault on the Chinese
Fortified Port of Taku). Lubin, USA
- FID 39662, 1900: Boxer-Kampf in China. (=> Boxer
battle in China). Production unknown
- FID 2314. 2315, 1900: China-Krieg. I., II. (=> China
War 1 and 2). Soc. Generale des Cinemas et Films, Paris
- FID 3197, 1900: Einschiffung der Truppen nach China.
(=> Embarcation of the Troops for China). Production unknown
- FID 3228, 1900: Einzug unserer Chinakrieger in Berlin am
16.12.1900. (=> March of our China warriors into Berlin on
16 December 1900). Messter, Berlin
- FID 5424-5429, 1900: Graf Waldersee. (=> Count W.).
Several titles startwith these words.
- FID 5891, 1900: Return of the Troops from China to Berlin.
- FID 7341, 1900: The Emperor and the departure of the German
troops to China. Sale: Wolff, Berlin
- FID 7415, 1900: The battle at the walls of Beijing. Sale:
- FID 40275, 1900: Men-of-War in front of Taku. USA
- FID 11340, 1900: Sacking and Murder of the Christians at
Beijing. Lubin, USA
- FID 11448, 1900: Prince Henry's Return from China. Sale:
- FID 13619, 1900: A Street in Beijing. Production unknown
- FID 5, 1901: The Blaze of the Imperial Palace in China. Soc.
Generale des Cinemas et des Films. Paris
- FID 2331, 1901: Murder of Christians in China. Prod. unknown
- FID 12179, 12190; 1901: Return of the Count Waldersee from
China in Hamburg at 1901 , August 8. I.II. Projectograph
- FID 12960; 1901: Naval battle Taku. (Distrib.:) Wospil (sure:
- FID 9474; 1911: Lieutenant Rose and the Boxers. Clarendon
- 1937: Alarm in Peking, Minerva-Tonfilm
- 1962: 55 Days at Peking. Bronston, USA
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